In vitro fertilization or IVF is a process by which a women’s egg is fertilized by sperm in a test tube. The process involves monitoring and stimulating a woman’s ovulatory process, removing eggs from the woman’s ovaries and letting sperm fertilize them in a liquid in a laboratory. The fertilized egg is cultured for 2–6 days in a growth medium and is then transferred to the woman’s uterus, with the intention of establishing a successful pregnancy.
When You Need IVF Process?
- Diagnosed with unexplained infertility
- If ovulation is infrequent or absent, then fewer eggs are available for fertilization.
- If fallopian tubes damage or blockage makes it difficult for you to become pregnant.
- Premature ovarian failure – the loss of normal ovarian function before age 40. If your ovaries fail, they will not produce normal amounts of the hormone estrogen or have eggs to release regularly.
- If you or your partner is at risk of passing on a genetic disorder to your child, you may be candidates for preimplantation genetic diagnosis.
- Fibroids – These are tumors in the wall of the uterus and are common in women in their 30s and 40s. Fibroids can interfere with implantation of the fertilized egg.
- If you’re about to start cancer treatment. Such as radiation or chemotherapy, that could harm your fertility, IVF for fertility preservation may be an option.
Procedure of IVF
- Firstly doctor will prescribe fertility medication to stimulate egg production. IVF treatment desires multiple eggs because some of the eggs will not develop or fertilize after retrieval.
- Then the doctor retrieves the eggs through a minor surgical procedure.
- Sperm and eggs are mixed together and stored in a laboratory to encourage fertilization. In some cases where there is a lower probability of fertilization, the doctor recommends intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Through this procedure, a single sperm is injected directly into the egg in an attempt to achieve fertilization. The eggs are usually monitored so that fertilization may be confirmed when cell division begins, after which, they are now considered embryos.
- Embryos are usually transferred into the woman’s uterus after three to five days of egg retrieval and fertilization. A catheter or small tube transfers the embryos into women’s uterus.
The cost of IVF Treatment for one cycle varies from $3000 to $8000 depending on other factors and one geographic area to another. Egg donor and sperm donor charges will be additional to this cost.
The success of IVF varies dramatically, depending on each couple reasons for infertility and their ages. However, younger women usually have healthier eggs and higher success rates.
- 41-43% for females under age 35
- 33-36% for females ages 35 to 37
- 23-27% for females ages 38 to 40
- 13-18% for females ages over 40
- Birth defects. The risk factor of birth defect depends on the age of the mother.
- Multiple births. IVF increases the risk of multiple births as this treatment implants more than one embryo is in your uterus.
- Premature delivery and low birth weight. Research suggests that the use of IVF slightly increases the risk that a baby will be born early or with a low birth weight.
- Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Some fertility drugs, such as human chorionic gonadotropin, can cause ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, in which your ovaries become swollen and painful. If you become pregnant, however, your symptoms might last several weeks.
- Miscarriage. The rate of miscarriage using IVF is same as women who conceive naturally, which is about 15 to 25 percent, but the rate increases with maternal age. However, the use of frozen embryos during IVF may slightly increase the risk of miscarriage.
- Egg retrieval procedure complications. Use of an aspirating needle to collect eggs can cause bleeding, infection or damage to the bowel, bladder or a blood vessel. General anesthesia also carries some risks.
- Ectopic pregnancy. About 2 to 5 percent of women who use IVF will have an ectopic pregnancy if the fertilized egg implants outside the uterus, usually in a Fallopian tube. The fertilized egg can’t survive outside the uterus, and there’s no way to continue the pregnancy.